The ceremonies into which the writer has been admitted among the Wa Yao in Central Africa, however, belong definitely to the group of sex-rites, and here the prototype of the Legend is missing. the meaning of which has already been explained (sq. like this would be an unthinkable action and an insult to the d. It is possible that they have a more materialistic origin and that formerly the s. ps of the 2nd Degree were performed on a square, by walking round the angle, and those of the 3rd Degree on the sq. This tribe endeavour to ensure fertility by pantomime and by the construction of effigies made of earth, which, misunderstood, might be regarded as grossly obscene. and r., he is definitely regarded as reborn and he becomes quite a different personality from his former uninitiated self: his whole mode of life is changed and he is given a new name. I do not propose to enter here into the discussion of a matter which is still a bone of contention between rival schools, but it should be noted that evidence of Canaanitish and other Asiatic influences in the masonic ritual may be pre-Egyptian, and not necessarily picked up on the way from Heliopolis to London. His needs are few and may be summed up in two words - Food and Sexual Vigour; and the one is closely connected with the other. is enacted by the whole Lodge, the three principals taking the chief parts. Thus Sbu (Anheyu, "the Lifter") who, as the light of the Dawn, was said to lift up the sky-goddess from the arms of the sleeping Earth, is often represented as a Lion, for only through him was the rebirth of the Sun made possible. In their present form the first has no meaning in Hebrew and the second is a proper name occurring in the Old Testament. The reference to an annual festival at which special prayers were offered tends to confirm this supposition. h in the West through which the sun daily sinks, only by the passage of which the s. It does not come within the scope of this book to trace the history of the Craft down to modern times, but it is absolutely necessary that its extreme antiquity be thoroughly appreciated. These two needs are in the writer's view the mainspring of the magical ceremonies he performs even at the present day: if food is scarce he will recourse to Magic to increase the quantity or the ease with which it may be obtained, - it is his primary need. This has the merit of making the narration of the traditional story continuous, instead of being broken up as in the English ritual by the charge and the communication of the s. Osiris is called the Lion of Yesterday, and Ra the Lion of To-morrow (42); the bier of Osiris is always represented as having the head and legs of the lion, and so on. It is the belief of the writer that the latter was adopted because it was the only word occurring in the Authorised Version of the Bible resembling the original word: whether this was done by the Ancients or by the Modems there is no evidence to show. (c) The square or Mosaic Pavement has already been discussed (56); it was used in the Egyptian temples and the occurrence of the word rizpah ("a tesselated pavement") in Hebrew proves that it was known farther East also. Some commentators have taken exception to this on the ground that coffins were not used in Judea. The god was killed by being shut up in a coffin by means of a stratagem (57): the coffin was then thrown into the Nile and eventually became lodged in an acacia which grew up and enclosed it. towards the West." This phrase and its concomitant in the closing, "From the West," betrays the influence of the Solar cult, a daily cycle, and refers to. Hence, in the mysteries, which were a dramatic representation of the soul's passage through Amenta, the initiate was made to enact the d. These retained their original character as deities of the corn to a greater degree than the Egyptian gods, and the Mysteries of Eleusis therefore were of a more primitive type than those of Egypt. The influence of the moon on growth is, in all parts of the world, regarded as different in effect according as she is waxing or waning; during the first half of the lunar month growth is stimulated, in the latter half, retarded." Care must be taken, say the wiseacres, to choose a phase of the moon favourable o the character of the work in hand ; agriculture, building and marriage, for instance, being relegated to the period before full moon, haircutting and felling of trees being better performed during the wane. All rituals agree, however, that he received his d.-blow in the East, and one is tempted at first to regard this as being so arranged as to allow the W. These facts would supply an explanation of the statement in all rituals that H. The absurdity of the statement is excused by its allegorical meaning, but the whole story is badly conceived. Thus the aspirant at Eleusis at the supreme moment was shown an ear of corn as the central Mystery. (38) The same superstition was prevalent in Egypt, and the 15th day of the month was observed as a special festival, marking the acme of the moon's influence, as we learn from the Book of the Dead. Further, not only do we know that the ancient Egyptians did make this use of the Pleiades - they called it Maia, whence our month of May, - but it is so used to this day by primitive peoples all over the world. Every savage tribe, in both hemispheres, whether they have named other stars or not, has a name for this constellation and dates the seasons from its arrival in certain positions ; many of them worship it. " recently published, * suggests that the form of these s. Until quite recently chalk or charcoal drawings were executed on the floor on which the s. ps were carried out, though we have no information as to the subject of these drawings. he would therefore expect to find "on the centre" and in the Lodge "opened on the centre." (Cf. (6) " My foot shall traverse." Some commentators have taken exception to the use of the word "traverse" on the grounds that it means "cross, thwart, oppose"; they appear to have overlooked the old English meaning of the word preserved in the nautical expression "traverse sailing," i.e., tacking or following a zig-zag course.
As knowledge of what were formerly regarded as pre-historic times develops, however, it becomes increasingly evident that Ancient Egypt owed much of its culture to Asia Minor, and even the cult of Osiris is now considered to be of foreign extraction. The savage is a very practical person; he is not concerned with metaphysics, and when we find him taking infinite trouble to carry out elaborate ceremonies at considerable inconvenience we may be sure that he has, or had, some definite object in view. Thus we find throughout the Book of the Dead the Supreme God, whether Ra or Osiris, appealed to as the "god in the Lion form;" always in such cases the prayer is that the soul of the departed be permitted to "come forth" in the East, rising with the Sun from the d ... The lion, in Egypt, as nowadays, was the personification of strength and power, but it was almost exclusively associated with the regeneration of the Sun and so with the r..n. It is more than probable that one of these words was that used by the "Ancients" and the other by the "Moderns," and that they were bracketed at the time of the Union. Temples closed to the sky had a window in the roof especially for this purpose, and I think there can be no doubt that such is the "dormer" referred to in the ritual. I would submit that such a conjunction of significant facts cannot be due to mere coincidence. is placed in the South "to mark the place of the sun below the horizon," - a quaint conception having neither astronomical nor mythological sanction, whereas in many parts of the world the disappearance of the Pleiades is looked for as one of the signs of the seasons. ps is connected with re-incarnation or rebirth, and quotes similar customs which undoubtedly have this significance. (5) The ob: "Lodge duly opened on the centre." In the centre of the Lodge is the Eye, the symbol of Osiris. It is not impossible that the wording is deliberate and has reference to the s. (18) It should be mentioned, moreover, that such an origin of the positions of the officers would account for a curious phrase occurring in the Second Lecture in some rituals. We see then that there is at least a prima facie case that the Hiramic legend evolved not only from the Osirian myth but from the magical ceremonies of primitive man: that such is actually the case is the writer's belief. This is mainly concerned with the fertility of man though it is not always possible to determine into which category any given ceremony should be put, - the one is apt to merge into the other, so closely are they allied. Among most primitive peoples, however, s....g over a g. The dead god was said to be situated at the Pole-star, guarded by the Seven Masters who revolved about him, never setting (Renouf) (33); in this aspect he was symbolised by the point within a circle. ps of this degree, symbolic of adherence to the "principles of the sq. These would be appropriately indicated by placing the W. in the East as representing the early growth (r ... in the South (or below the horizon) at the period of refreshment after labour (after the harvest) or of the summons from refreshment to labour at the beginning of the planting season. The reason for the difference in the Scotch ritual would appear to be the custom still observed in some lodges of enacting the m. r, instead of merely relating it, the three principal officers taking the parts of the assassins; thus the cand. The assignment of two of the entrances to the North and South in the English ritual (and, I think, probably in the old Scotch ritual) betrays the influences of the Solar cult, in which the Sun was said to be in difficulties at both the northern and southern solstices, and, in the northern hemisphere at least, was said to die and be reborn at the latter. n) of the corn or the planting (burial) of the seed; the S. in the West as personifying the harvest which "sees that every b. These positions of the Pleiades would be correct for North Africa in antiquity, though slightly different there now owing to the precession of the equinoxes. is taken first to the South, then to the West, and is finally despatched by the W. Then as man becomes more "civilized" he begins to grow his own food instead of depending entirely on that provided by unassisted Nature, and the Spirit of Life tends to become identified with the Corn. As a Corn-God, he is often represented on the monuments as a mummy from which corn is sprouting when awakened by a stream of water. Some rituals make the blows correspond to the penal s. striking him across the t., and the second across the b.. I would hazard a suggestion, also, that the penalty of the third is of modern invention, and that the earlier one is the, - shall we say capital one, of at least two higher degrees; this would be more in keeping also with the ritual as it stands. The injunction to observe incidents at the opening of the g. is seen on Egyptian monuments and in the vignettes, in association with a S.n now belonging to a higher masonic degree, and made with the r.. S.n is also found in Egyptian pictures where it is used by those saluting Osiris in his coffin. S.n is found in India where it is used by Shiva (51): the navel is frequently regarded as symbolical of the centre in Eastern and African thought; in some Bantu (Central African) languages it is the only word for "centre." There may also be an esoteric meaning having reference to rebirth, which is a common rite, especially in secret societies, in all parts of the world.