While many probably have not thought about it before, carbon-14 dating relates to Christianity and Judaism in interesting ways.
Since there are many misconceptions about carbon-14 dating, this paper will explain the principle, the method, some early problems with it, and its current trustworthiness.
Bristlecone pine is both worse and better to use than oak.
It is worse, in that the rings are very thin, and roughly 5% of the time the tree either does not grow a ring in a year or else grows two rings.
All plants take in carbon from carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. A carbon-14 atom is radioactive; it eventually loses an electron and a neutrino and changes to nitrogen-14.
This happens annually, and thus very thin annual layers are deposited. More snow is deposited in summer, when the air is wetter, than in winter.
While this soaking removes some good material too, it does not change the C ratio, but it is altered the same way in the calibration samples too.
For example, while the Catholic Church was unwilling to let scientists burn a square inch piece of the Shroud of Turin, when mass spec technology advanced, it was willing to let them burn a thread, and that was all that was needed. Finally, one reads the age from a calibration chart of age vs. In the Radiocarbon journal the ratio is reported, so readers can calibrate for themselves.
Some clams were dated as having died 50,000 years ago, and they were still alive!
Many Middle Eastern artifacts, preserved under ideal conditions, were consistently giving dates wrong by 20%. Let's look critically at assumption 2, that nothing else affects the ratio in a dead organism.