Artifacts such as spindle whorls found at different Cholula site loci provide evidence for the extensive production of textiles in the site.
These are rare from the Formative and the Classic periods but become more prevalent in the Postclassic.
Estimates suggest that during the Formative period the site extended for about 2 square kilometers, with a population of five to ten thousand.
The Classical period is known for the construction of the Great Pyramid.
Here, trade routes connected the Gulf coast, the Valley of Mexico, Tehuacan Valley, and La Mixteca Baja through Izucar de Matamoros.
The earliest occupation dates back to the Early Formative period.
In the 1970s, Mountjoy discovered a waterlogged deposit dating to the Late Middle Formative period near the ancient lake shore.
There is also a confluence of several perennial streams with the Atoyac River that creates a wetland to the north and east of the urban center.
This has resulted in abundant and excellent agriculture during the colonial period, which led to Cholula being known as the richest agricultural region in central Mexico.