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Advances in technology made possible mass production of foodstuffs, quick distribution of goods, safer storage facilities, and more efficient cooking appliances.Advances in transportation (most notably trains, automobiles, trucks) also created a huge demand for public dining venues.With the exception of inns, which were primarily for travelers, and street kitchens...where in Europe at that time could one purchase a meal outside the home?Essentially in places where alcoholic begerages were sold, placesewquipped to serve simple, inexepensive dishes either cooked on the premises or ordered from a nearby inn or food shop, along with wine, beer, and spirits, which constituted the bulk of their business.However, they have their roots in the habits and customs that characterize our civilization and predate the Middle Ages.Certain phases of foodservice operations reach a well-organized from as early as feudal times...Such tavern-restaurants existed not only in France but also in other countries.

"Foodservice organizations in operation in the United States today have become an accepted way of life, and we tend to regard them as relatively recent innovations.

the Patissiers, Rotisseurs, Charcutiers] and created a hungry, middle-class customer base who relished the ideals of egalitarianism (as in, anyone who could pay the price could get the same meal).

Entrepreneurial French chefs were quick to capitalize on this market. Boulanger, 1765 "In about 1765, a Parisian 'bouillon seller' named Boulanger wrote on his sign: 'Boulanger sells restoratives fit for the gods'...

The royal household, with its hundreds of retainers, and the households of nobles, often numbering as many as 150 to 250 persons, also necessitated an efficient foodservice...

In providing for the various needs, strict cost accounting was necessary, and here, perhaps, marks the beginning of the present-day scientific foodservice cost accounting..." ---West and Wood's Introduction to Foodservice, June Payne-Palacio & Monica Theis, editors [Prentice-Hall: Upper Saddle River NJ] 9th edition, 2001 (p.

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